(e.g. 2013). To this aim, this chapter investigates the contents of plans by searching for explicit but also implicit references to ES, and classifying the information based on their use within the plan, as described in the next Section. Energy Flow in Ecosystem. Environ Sci Policy 62:1–6. Ecosystem assets may be different than their “natural” and semi-natural” counterparts. A further understanding and appropriation of the ES approach by urban planning would benefit future practices in many respects. First, it could promote consideration of a larger set of urban ES, at least in the initial phases of planning processes, thus increasing awareness of all values at stake, highlighting co-benefits and trade-offs that may arise from planning actions, and making prioritization more transparent. The numerous benefits we obtain from the ecosystem are known by the term ecosystem services. J Environ Plan Manag 53:41–62. Part of Springer Nature. A basic qualitative assessment of the current state of ES is performed, but detailed analysis, quantitative measurements, and clear identification of demand and beneficiaries are lacking. 4. Using Italy as a case study, this chapter explores how urban plans integrate knowledge on ES to secure or improve ES provision by conserving, restoring, and enhancing urban ecosystems. ES-inclusive approaches have routinely been used in planning, even though under different names, as it clearly emerges from both planners opinions (Beery et al. For example, terrestrial environs like forest purify and regulates air quality, prevent soil erosion, and control greenhouse gases. Definition of a program for land acquisition by the public administration, with the aim of realizing a public project. Ecosystems are a source of food, water, medicines, wood, biofuels, etc. In our sample of 22 urban plans of Italian cities, we found a high number of actions to address urban ecosystem services and a variety of tools for implementation. Natural capital comprises two major components: Abiotic natural capital comprises subsoil assets (e.g. Scoring protocol for the information base component. As Landscape Architects it is our responsibility to design landscapes that utilize natural systems for human benefit. ES are named as follows: (a) food supply, (b) water flow regulation and runoff mitigation, (c) urban temperature regulation, (d) noise reduction, (e) air purification, (f) moderation of environmental extremes, (g) waste treatment, (h) climate regulation, (i) recreation, Breadth score indicator measuring the inclusion of urban ES in the three plan components. Plan IDs can be found in Annex I, Depth score indicator measuring the quality of inclusion of urban ES in the information base and in the vision and objectives components. (non-compulsory) to apply in private areas. “The objective of increasing the amount of public green areas up to three times the existing can also be reached by making the 22% of the actual inaccessible green areas accessible and usable. ES are named as follows: (a) food supply,(b) water flow regulation and runoff mitigation, (c) urban temperature regulation, (d) noise reduction, (e) air purification, (f) moderation of environmental extremes, (g) waste treatment, (h) climate regulation, (i) recreation, Groups of actions based on the type of intervention proposed. We considered the following urban ES: food supply, water flow regulation and runoff mitigation, urban temperature regulation, noise reduction, air purification, moderation of environmental extremes, waste treatment, climate regulation, and recreation. The implementation tool describes the type of legal instruments provided to implement the action, i.e. Supporting services form the basis for other services. Definition of a non-financial incentive in the form of an increase in the surface (or volume) that is allowed in the area. Urban planning addresses urban ES through a high number and a great variety of actions, Scientific knowledge is only partly transferred to planning practices, A wide range of local problems can be addressed through ES-based actions, There is little guidance on how to incorporate information on ES into planning processes, Urban planners are already equipped with a large set of tools to implement ES-related actions, Usable methods to assess urban ES at a relevant scale while accounting for multi-functionality of ecosystems are still lacking, Recreation provided by urban ecosystems, although not linked to the ES concept, is widely acknowledged and promoted by planning actions, Plans contain no analyses of ES demand and of the existing and expected beneficiaries (with the only exception of recreation), A set of key regulating ES to address pressing urban environmental problems (i.e. widespread over the whole territory, targeting specific areas, or limited to specific sites. Finally, it could support the explicit identification of ES demand and beneficiaries, thus improving baseline information to address urban environmental equity, and providing planners and decision-makers with stronger arguments against conflicting interests on land-use decisions. Wilkinson C, Saarne T, Peterson GD, Colding J (2013) Strategic spatial planning and the ecosystem services concept – An historical exploration. 2016). 2013, Luederitz et al. The plan shows a limited level of locally specific application of the ES concept. Cite as. The target area describes the scale of the planning action and the spatial distribution of the interventions within the city, i.e. The interactions among different components of ecosystems are fundamental to a well-defined environment. Greenbelts, or land that is kept in reserve, are example of how zoning can be used to protect environmentally sensitive areas from urban development and sprawl. This way, the green area per inhabitant doubles and exceeds the 30 Km2/inhabit..”. 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